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How does color blindness work? (Question by brokenglass)

The type of neuron that processes light in the eye is the photoreceptor, and they come in two types: rods and cones.  In the top picture above, you can see these two types.  Cones are the ones that process colors (rods are more light/dark, non-specific, movement detectors, etc.).  In these photoreceptors, there are opsins that detect some wavelengths of light better than others.  In the lower image, you can see the wavelengths that the three cone opsins can detect and the much broader range that the rod opsin (rhodopsin) detects.

These opsins absorb the wavelengths of light and essentially excite the photoreceptor.  By having all three, you are able to detect a whole range of colors.  Some will excite certain opsins more than others, etc., and they work together to provide an accurate shade of color for whatever you are looking at.

In color blindness, the person is lacking one or more of the cone opsins.  They can still see, but they are unable to detect that range of colors and discriminate those shades as well.  Since the gene that makes these proteins is on the X-chromosome (women have two X’s and men have one X- paired with a Y), men are much more likely to be colorblind.  If a woman does not have all the genes for all three color opsins on one X-chromosome, it is likely that she has the missing one on her other X-chromosome.  For men, if they are missing those genes, they cannot get them from another chromosome, since they only have one copy of the X-chromosome.  That’s why you are more likely to come across a man with color blindness than a woman.

Ask your question here.

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No one reads the Queen of the Underworld (1850–1924).

In 1913, Sophie Lyons wrote her memoirs, chronicling six decades of bank robberies, prison breaks, cons, and swindles that left her a rich woman. One hundred years later, we’re [Combustion Books] bringing this important work back into print, casting back the veil of the 19th century criminal underworld. This is the world of fences and art thieves, bank sneaks and conwomen, but it is punctuated by a remarkable and nearly universal honor among thieves. Fully illustrated throughout with numerous diagrams of robbery methods and ways of concealing stolen valuables.

via Brickbat Books (my favorite Philadelphia bookstore)

@WritersNoOneRds / Facebook


Frederik De Wilde

Artist from Brussels inspired by science and technology in both form and production of art works:

Frederik De Wilde acts on the border area between science, technology and art. The conceptual crux of his artistic praxis are the notions of the intangible, inaudible, invisible. It is this interstitial territory that Frederik De Wilde explores in his various works. Sometimes on the side of the technological, and often in the perceptual, conceptual, social—human—register, De Wilde’s art is grounded in the interaction between complex systems, both biological and technological. Moreover, the indistinct, diffuse, ‘fuzzy’ arena where the biological and the technological overlap and commingle is a productive and favored ground for his projects/ projections.

More at his website here

[h/t - Data is Nature]


Anonymous asked:

Shut the fuck up about vaccinations. Not everyone has to have them, not everyone believes in them. Uneducated fuck.





You know, my homie and secret best friend Neil deGrasse Tyson said it best….


This isn’t an issue of belief or should even be up for discussion. It’s not a debate- like gravity or that the Earth revolves around the Sun isn’t up for debate. It’s a fact, whether or not you like it. Sorry bro.

And any ‘educated fuck’ knows that vaccines are necessary and everyone who can have them should have them.

Have a lovely day, sugar. 

Actually there’s a lot of research and knowledge supporting the fact that vaccines are NOT necessary. It is simply another thing that today’s health system is super big on, just like hospital births and c-sections. And a lot of people actually have long term and short term complications from getting vaccines. Ahem.

Dang guys, you thought I didn’t check my activity log every now and then? Because I knew shit like this would pop up. And, I just finished my block exam and am feeling fiesty.

Actually you’re wrong. That ‘research’ is either completely fabricated OR grossly misinterprets the data OR uses shitty research techniques to get the data they want- all which are grossly unethical, in case you’re curious. I’ve got slides from a recent lecture on vaccines (aka why I am so fired up about this nonsense). You can check out the citations on each slide if you don’t believe me… something unsurprisingly missing from literally every anti-vaccine comment I’ve gotten and website that I have visited. Show me your sources, honey, and if you do, I will blow them out of the water because not a single one stands up to current scientific research standards.

There are however tomes and tomes of research for the safety end efficacy of vaccines. Don’t believe me? Look at a simple google scholar search.

So! Here we go! 



Holy shit, it’s almost like vaccines SAVE SOCIETY MONEY. In fact, they give money back to society, along with the other programs indicated by red arrows. Which would be really weird for something that is just a healthcare fad like c-sections and hospital births.

And most people have no complications for getting vaccines, and if they do, most of them are short term. In fact, it is devilishly hard to prove an adverse effect was because of a vaccine. Why? Because it’s how we’re wired. We falsely see connections and causes where there are none (called a type 1 error; you are rejecting a true null hypothesis). People are more likely to attribute an adverse health event to a shot- even if that shot is the placebo and the numbers are just the background rate for whatever health event in the population.


And here is a graph showing the sample sizes necessary to prove that an adverse event is caused or related to a vaccine.


You know what, it was a really good lecture and I’m going to share more more relevant slides in case any one else feels like contradicting me.

These slides show the public health impact of vaccines. Note the differences between the historical peak and post-vaccine era deaths columns. Because saving literally thousands of lives is totally a conspiracy you should beware of.



And this is why herd immunity is so important! See how high it has to be for measles? Guess what we’re seeing outbreaks of thanks to anti-vaxxers? Don’t forget that one of the deadly complications of measles is SSPE.


Look how Hepatitis A infections in older adults when down after kids started getting immunized. Shocking! Could vaccines be… good for …. everyone????



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